15 Important Black writers to influence Johannesburg

Johannesburg has often been a place of conundrums; apartheid acts as a beginning and an end. And literature which is often an art that connects the unsaid with the truth, acts like a mirror which reveals a society to itself. We look at 15 Black authors who have left their imprint on the city. 

Many authors in South Africa often express the things people are afraid to say, taking to writing books, poetry and plays in the midst of the political confusion and social instability. Some of these authors have given way to the hip, misunderstood, radical and frustrated authors of today.

As a microcosm of South African society, Johannesburg is a city which typifies the contradictions of the  country; on one hand we have the Houghtons and the Gautrains, and on the other, Soweto and Alexandra.

We even have streets named after Miriam Makeba and Louis Botha. Sometimes Justin Bieber comes to visit, on other days Jill Scott.

We take a look at 15 important black writers to influence the city of Johannesburg.

Some are alive and some long gone, some are newly controversial and some are long standing celebrities, but each one has left an imprint on the metropolitan hub of social transformation and the beating heart of South Africa, 20 years still in transition.

1. Bessie Head

BOTSWANA COME TO JHB: Bessie Head as young woman. Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

BOTSWANA COME TO JHB: Bessie Head as young woman. Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

Bessie Amelia Head was born on the 6th of July 1937 in Pietermaritzburg, although she is is usually considered Botswana’s most influential writer.

According to Remembered, Head’s mother was white and her father was black. She was raised by foster parents after her mother gave birth to her in an asylum, and then taken in by the Anglican mission orphanage.

In later years she trained as a primary school teacher, but in 1959 Head decided to pursue a career in journalism.

She wrote short stories for the Johannesburg Golden City Post, which was a weekly supplement and sister publication to the then famous Drum magazine.

When she moved to Johannesburg to write from Drum, her work began to precede her as reputable writer.

2. Miriam Tlali

TLALI ON MY WALL: Miriam Tlali is the first black woman in South Africa to publish a novel. Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

The first black woman in South Africa to publish a novel was Miriam Tlali.

She was also one of the first authors to write about Soweto. Tlali studied at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg until it was subsequently closed to Black people during apartheid.

Tlali then left to study in Lesotho but was unable to continue with her studies because of a lack of funds.

She then became an office clerk and wrote her first novel Muriel at Metropolitan in 1979. Her subsequent books include Amandla(1980), Mihloti (1984), and Footprints in the Quag (1989).

She was honoured in this year’s 21 Icons. Here is her story: Miriam Tlali

3. Njabulo S Ndebele

Prof Njabulo Ndebele reflects on his achievements during his inauguration as the new Chancellor - Sanlam Auditorium on Kingsway Campus on Friday, 16 November 2012.

Prof Njabulo Ndebele reflects on his achievements during his inauguration as the new Chancellor – Sanlam Auditorium on Kingsway Campus on Friday, 16 November 2012.

Ndebele is currently the Chancellor of the University of Johannesburg (UJ) and a member of the English Academy of South Africa.

Author of The Cry of Winnie Mandela, in 2004 it received critical acclaim, and his earlier publication Fools and Other Stories won Ndebele the Noma Award, which is Africa’s highest literary award for the best book published in Africa in 1984.

Ndebele has also written a number of highly influential essays on South African literature and culture, these were published in the collection Rediscovery of the Ordinary.

IMAGE: Taken during his inauguration at the University of Johannesburg.

4. Steve Biko

THE CONSCIOUS MAN: Steve Biko on the cover of Drum magazine.

THE CONSCIOUS MAN: Steve Biko on the cover of Drum magazine.

This man writes what he likes. Very little introduction is necessary when discussing the father of the Black Consciousness Movement.

The movement was an instrument pivotal to the empowerment and mobilization of much of the urban black population in South Africa during in apartheid.

Much of his letters, essays and teachings have stood the test of time and newly formed parties such as the Economic Freedom Front have aligned themselves quite obviously with Biko’s words.

In Johannesburg CBD, the Steve Biko Foundation can be located at the Braamfontein Centre on Jorrisen Street. The Foundation aims to “…strengthen democracy by championing dialogue, scholarship and programmes on the relationship between identity, agency, citizenship and social action.”

5. Don Mattera

EMPOWERING POETS: Rehana Mosajee (from left) Portia Monama, Katleho Sekhotho, Don Mattera (right). Photo: Mrs Rice

EMPOWERING POETS: Rehana Mosajee (from left) Portia Monama, Katleho Sekhotho, Don Mattera (right). Photo: Mrs Rice

“Sorry is not just a word, it’s a deed.”

The renowned larger-than-life poet says, “Contrition is not bless me Father for I have sinned, contrition is I have taken from thee therefore I give thee back.”

These are Mattera’s words on addressing the issues surrounding the collective responsibility that white people have but have ignored in the new and democratic South Africa.

He says, “They suffer from forgetfulness.”

Mattera was born in the Western Native Township, now known as Westbury in Johannesburg. He grew up in Sophiatown, and according to an interview with Lucille Davie Don Mattera: poet of compassion,Mattera was during his high school years a gangster, the leader of the Vultures which was one of the most powerful gangs in Sophiatown.

He has worked as a journalist at the Sunday Times, The Weekly Mail (now the Mail & Guardian) and The Sowetan. He has trained over 260 journalists. Mattera also has a doctorate in literature.

CHIMAMANDA: The Thing Around Your Neck Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

CHIMAMANDA: The Thing Around Your Neck                         Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

6. Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie

Although reading this list one might find Adichie irrelevant to the theme, she has become by far an African novelist who has transformed the way in which young black readers in Africa have become attuned to literature.

A Nigerian author, one might argue she has entered into the sacred realms of Achebe and Okri.

Her books include Half of a Yellow Sun, Purple Hibiscus and The Thing Around Your Neck, the latter being a collection of short stories.

 

7. Gcina Mhlophe

Gcina Mhlophe: Never fails to entertain and never fails to get her message across. Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

Gcina Mhlophe: Never fails to entertain and never fails to get her message across.                    Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

Easily one of the most celebrated poets in South Africa, Mhlophe has easily become synonymous with the music of liberation and the songs of freedom.

She is known as a South African freedom fighter, activist, actor, storyteller, poet, playwright, director and author.

Well-travelled and globally celebrated, she continues to hold African idiomatic expressions and metaphors at the helm of her artistry.

She writes children’s books and remains concerned with the advancement of literature in schools. (See: Time for book fairs to “break the class divide”)

Her play, Have you seen Zandile? Was first performed at the Market Theatre in Johannesburg in 1986, with Mhlophe as Zandile.

Here is Mhlophe talking about the importance of knowing you ancestral connections.

KOPANO MATLWA Photo: Provided

KOPANO MATLWA Photo: Provided

8. Dr Kopano Matlwa Mabaso

Perhaps one of the youngest writers to emerge in the literary sphere as a force to be reckoned with Matlwa’s Coconut, opened the lid on the realities of being a 21stcentury black girl living in South Africa.

Her debut Coconut was succeeded by her novel Spilt Milk, the former winning her the Wole Soyinka Prize for Literary in Africa in 2008, sharing the prize with “I Do Not Come To You By Chance” by Adaobi Tricia Nwaubani and “Tenants of The House” by Wale Okediran.

Matlwa matriculated from St. Peters College in Johannesburg with distinctions in 2003.

9. Peter Abrahams

Once a sailor Abrahams was born to an Ethopian father and a Coloured mother, under the apartheid regime his mother was in South Africa considered a ‘Kleurling’. He was born in Vrededorp, a suburb in Johannesburg but later left South Africa in 1939.

His novel Mine Boy, published in 1946, remains relevant and timeless. Mine Boy was one of Abraham’s first works to bring him critical attention.

The novel was turned into a musical in 2014, in celebration of 20 years of democracy. The musical was showcased at the Wushwini Arts and heritage centre in the KwaZulu-Natal province.

Es’kia Mphahlele Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

Es’kia Mphahlele Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

10. Es’kia Mphahlele

Mphahlele was a South African writer, teacher, artist and activist. He was born Ezekiel Mphahlele but would later change his name to Es’kia in 1977.

He died at the age of 88 from natural causes. He was the first black professor at Wits and founded its African Literature Department.

This year Wits University will hold The Es’kia Mphahlele Postgraduate Colloquium and Arts Forum. It is a bi-annual event initiated in tribute to renowned writer and intellectual, Es’kia Mphahlele, who had a life-long interest in the training and mentoring of emerging artists and scholars.

A LONG WALK: Mandela’s legacy will undoubtedly live for generations to come. Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

A LONG WALK: Mandela’s legacy will undoubtedly live for generations to come.                       Photo: Katleho Sekhotho

11. Nelson Mandela

Perhaps Africa’s biggest icon, Mandela name is synonymous with the liberation themes that vibrate

MANDELA BRIDGE: The Nelson Mandela bridge in the night time. This photo was taken by renowned cinematographer Ofentse Mwase

MANDELA BRIDGE: The Nelson Mandela bridge in the night time. This photo was taken by renowned cinematographer Ofentse Mwase

throughout South Africa then and now.

While his many accolades precede him, he was also sometimes an author. One of his biggest autobiographies (also literally in the sense!) was his Long Walk to Freedom . The book profiles his early life, coming of age and 27 years in prison.

Here we see the Mandela Bridge in Johannesburg. The bridge is one of the many architectural structures throughout the country that honour Madiba’s legacy.

12. Lebo Mashile

FIERCE POETRY: Poet Lebo Mashile spoke out against Israeli apartheid at the IAW concert on this year during Israeli Apartheid Week. Photo: Michelle Gumede

FIERCE POETRY: Poet Lebo Mashile spoke out against Israeli apartheid at the IAW concert on this year during Israeli Apartheid Week. Photo: Michelle Gumede

She has no doubt become one of the most popular poets to date in contemporary South Africa.

A former Wits Law student, she was the daughter of exiled parents in the United States of America and returned in the mid 1990’s after the end of apartheid.

She has been actively involved in the plight against apartheid in Israel. She has performed numerously throughout the country, and recently partook in the Ruth First Memorial Lecture at Wits University, which was ablaze with political and social agenda that aimed to criticise racial dynamics within this democratic nation.

13. Panashe Chigumadzi

“Thank you Tseliso Monaheng for your amazing photographer’s eye.” – Panashe Chigumadzi

“Thank you Tseliso Monaheng for your amazing photographer’s eye.” – Panashe Chigumadzi

One of the newest voices to arise in recent years, she is a self proclaimed ‘Coconut’ and hers is the plight to transform the meaning of what it is to be a young black female in a democratic South Africa. She also spoke at the Ruth First Memorial Lecture to a crowd inspired by her words.

A Wits student, she will be releasing her debut novel Sweet Medicinelater this year. She is the founder and editor for the Vanguard Magazine, a platform for young black women coming of age in post apartheid South Africa.

She is currently completing a postgraduate degree in Development Studies at Wits.

14. Mamphele Ramphele

Although Ramphele has become in recent years a controversial figure, she is also a novelist.

Ramphele is a former anti-apartheid activist against, a medical doctor, an academic and a businesswoman.

She was one of several romantically involved partners linked to Steve Biko. Her latest book Passion for Freedom was published in 2013.

She was also leader of the Agang party; she has since withdrawn from politics from July 2014.

15. Zakes Mda

Zakes Mda was born in 1948 and has become a national signatory in the world of arts and literature.

He has written countless novels, poems and plays, many have been performed throughout the country on many stages, including the Market Theatre in Johannesburg, Newtown. He has won major South African and British literary awards for his novels and plays, and is currently a Patron of the Etisalat Prize for Literature.

He has also been awarded the NAACP Image Award for Outstanding Literary Work.

Mngxitama: ANC has failed the ideals of Steve Biko

The African National Congress (ANC) has succeeded in making black people accept that they’re third class citizens, said EFF’s (Economic Freedom Fighters) Andile Mngxitama, at Wits yesterday.

Mngxitama was speaking at the first in a series of lectures that commemorates the life of Black consciousness leader Steve Biko.

Speaking about the ideals of the Black consciousness movement to an audience of about 100 people, Mngitama said “[The] ANC has destroyed the capacity of blacks to take themselves seriously”.

“No sane person can defend the ANC … at least [give] a rational defence, at least [give] a pro black defence.” Mngxitama said that in South Africa people black people have to fight for RDP (Reconstruction and Development Programme) housing even though they should be entitled to these homes. He said many South Africans are not aware of their entitlements as citizens because of the ANC.

Mngxitama said the problem with the ruling party is that its policies are inherently “anti-black”  He argued that Black consciousness as an ideal runs counter to non-racialism as the latter does not recognise “the black situation”. He said even the Freedom Charter, which was written by the ANC in 1955, is suspending black thought because its ideals do not empower black people.

Responding to recent incidents involving his party in parliament, Mngxitama said that “parliament is not a place of truth” and said that radical movements like the EFF are meant to turn places like parliament upside down.

We don’t write what we like

 

Political studies Honors student reads up on the history of South Africa at Wits University's William Cullen library.   Photo: Palesa Tshandu

Political studies honours student Gabriel Shamu reads up on the history of South Africa at Wits University’s William Cullen library. Photo: Palesa Tshandu

Wits has not a module for black consciousness, a movement popularised by Steve Biko, since the dismissal of a politics lecturer last year.

The popular module was taught by Prof Rupert Taylor, who was dismissed last year following allegations of sexual harassment.

“There hasn’t been a particular departmental level discussion about replacing Rupert Taylor’s black consciousness course,” Politics head of department Prof Daryl Glaser.

[pullquote]“The course that was given was a competent introduction into black consciousness and an important contribution given the reality of liberal universities murdering Biko,”[/pullquote]

According to Glaser, black consciousness was taught by Taylor as an extension of his own interests and specialities.

“The course content to some extent is decided by the interests and specialities of the members of staff and Rupert Taylor had an interest in that subject,” said Glaser.

The module was part of a first-year course introduction to politics, which has was focused on South African politics.

Andile Mngxitama, an official for the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF),was a prominent guest lecturer for module. He said the discontinued module was needed because “liberal universities” disregard Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement.

“The course that was given was a competent introduction into black consciousness and an important contribution given the reality of liberal universities murdering Biko”, Mngxitama said.

Mngxitama believes that teaching black consciousness is important because it “outlaws racist white academic establishments.”

Democratic Alliance Student Organisation leader Luyolo Mphithi said the black consciousness module was interesting as the viewpoint that Taylor offered was of a “white, non-South African observing black consciousness”.

Glaser argued that while black consciousness is important, it was only one ideology among many in South Africa.

“[We] would have to single out one ideology from the diversity of ideologies and movements in South Africa.”

Some former students of the module argued that while black consciousness was important, the university had to be selective about which South African movements and political ideologies it would teach.

“We don’t talk about Afrikaner nationalism and Afrikaans identity and the department must think carefully about the kind conversations we want our students to have,” said politics masters student and activist Pearl Pillay.

According to associate professor in politics Ahmed Veriava, Taylor’s replacement in the department is Lawrence Hamilton. Hamilton is a former professor of political theory at the University of Johannesburg and is due to start in June 2014.

 

RELATED ARTICLES: